Tuesday, March 5, 2019

Operational Risk Management in Banking Sector: an Overview

seek PaPeR Commerce Volume 3 content 1 January 2013 ISSN 2249-555X Operational insecurity Management in Banking empyrean An everywhe check into advertwords Rakesh Chutia Assistant, relegate Bank of India Margheita-786181 Dist. -Tinsukia Assam ABSTRACT Operational take a chance is inherent in all commiting products, activities and carry outes and ashess and the effective guidance of in surgical process(p) jeopardize is of par make sense magnificence for every wedges board and senior attention.With globalization and deregulating of financial commercializes, increased competition combined with the advent of high-end, innovative, ripe engine room tremendous changes train taken billet in the products distribution impart and service delivery mechanism of the pious platitudeing vault of heaven. These have introduced much interlinkingities into the banking operations and accordingly the try patterns and composes of the industry have overly become comple x, diverse and catastrophic. The invigorated Capital Adequacy Framework of the Reserve Bank of India requires bank to have expectant explicitly towards working(a) guess.This paper tries to regard the various methodologies utilize by the banks in their usable insecurity anxiety activity and to study the regulatory framework re latishd to running(a) venture solicitude. Introduction Since the late 1990s, globalization, deregulation, consolidation, outsourcing, breaking of geographical barriers by use of ripe technology, growth of e-commerce etc. have signifi earth-closettly changed the business, economic and regulatory climate of the banking sector. These developments introduced more complexities into the activities of banks and their lay on the line profiles.Consequently a series of high profile operational injury positions at Societe Generale, UBS, AIB, and National Australia Bank etc. have led banks and their carry offments world over to increasingly view operati onal encounter prudence as an constitutive(a) part of their insecurity of exposure perplexity activity like the management of market fortune and credit assay. The identification and touchstone of operational risk is a signifi shadowt issue for modern-day banks, particularly since the decision by theBasel delegation on Banking Supervision(BCBS) to introduce a capital stir up for this risk as part of the new capital adequacy framework (Basel II).Operational risk has been defined by the Basel citizens committee on Banking Supervision as the risk of loss essenceing from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems or from outside events. This definition is based on the downstairslying causes of operational risk. It seeks to identify the causes of a loss event and at the broadest level includes the breakdown by quatern causes people, processes, systems and external factors. Operational risk may materialise directly, e. g. , in electronic fund transfer (tra nsfer of funds to the wrong person) or could result indirectly as a credit or market loss.Since in that location is a close linkage of operational risk with other types of risks, it is very consequential for banks to first have a clear understanding of the concept of operational risk before designing the appropriate operational risk measurement and management framework. Different types of operational risk in Banking Sector The Basel Committee has identified the following types of operational risk events as having the potential to result in substantial losings for banks Internal fraud. For example, intentional misreporting of positions, employee theft, and insider craft on an employees own account. Externalfraud. Forexample,robbery,forgery,chequekiting, and damage from computer hacking. Employment practices and workplace safety. For example, workers remuneration claims, violation of employee health and safety rules, organised labour activities, discrimination claims, and preva lent liability. Clients, products and business practices. For example, fiduciary breaches, misuse of confidential customer culture, improper trading activities on the banks account, money laundering, and sale of unauthorized products. Damagetophysicalassets. Forexample,terrorism,vandalism, earthquakes, fires and floods. air disruption and system failures. For example, hardw ar and software failures, telecommunication problems, and utility outages. Execution,deliveryandprocessmanagement. Forexample data entry errors, collateral management failures, in eject legal documentation, and unauthorized come near shot given to client accounts, non-client counterparty misperformance, and vendor disputes. OPERATIONAL RISKMANAGEMENT PROCESS Operational Risk management generally encompasses the process of identifying risks to the bank, measuring mental pictures to those risks), ensuring that an effective capital intend and monitoring programme is in place, monitoring risk exposures and corresponding capital needs on an ongoing basis, taking steps to correspond or mitigate risk exposures. Identification of operational risk. Banks should identify and mensurate the operational risk inherent in all products, services,activities,processesandsystems.You puke read in addition Portfolio Management QuizzesEffectiverisk identification should consider both internal factors (such(prenominal) as the banks structure, the nature of the banks activities, the quality of the banks human resources, organisational changes and employee turnover) and external factors (such as changes in the industry and scientific advances) that could adversely affect the achievement of the banks objectives. AssessmentofOperationalRisk. Inadditiontoidentifying the risk events, banks should assess their vulnerability to these risk events.Effective risk assessment allows a bank to mend understand its risk profile and most effectively target risk management resources. Amongst the possible tools th at may be used by banks for assessing operational risk are ? Self Risk Assessment A bank assesses its operations and activities against a menu of potential operational risk vulnerabilities. This process is internally driven and often incorporates checklists and/or workshops to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the operational risk environment. 6 X INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED query ReseaRch PaPeR Risk Mapping In this process, various business units, organizational functions or process flows are mapped by risk type. This exercise can reveal areas of weakness and help prioritise subsequent management action. ? Key Risk indicants Key risk indicators are statistics and/ or metrics, often financial, which can provide insight into a banks risk position. such(prenominal) indicators may include the number of failed trades, staff turnover rates and the frequency and/or severity of errors and omissions. Measurement. A primaeval element of risk management is measuring the size and scop e of the banks risk exposures.However, there is no clearly established, single method to measure operational risk on a bank-wide basis. Banks may develop risk assessment techniques that are appropriate to the size and complexities of their portfolio, their resources and data availability. A good assessment ensample must cover certain modular features. An example is the matrix approach in which losses are categorized according to the type of event and the business line in which the event occurred. Banks may assess their exposure to operational risk using a variety of approaches.Forexample,dataonabankshistoricallossexperience could provide pregnant information for assessing the banks exposure to operational risk and ontogenesis a policy to mitigate/control the risk. MonitoringofOperationalRisk. Aneffectivemonitoring process is essential for adequately managing operational risk. Banks should implement a process to regularly monitor operational risk profiles and material exposures to losses. In addition to monitoring operational loss events, banks should identify appropriate indicators that provide early warning of an increased risk of futurelosses.Such indicators should be forward-looking and could reflect potential sources of operational risk such as rapid growth, the introduction of new products, employee turnover, transaction breaks, system downtime, and so on. There should be regular reporting of pertinent informationtoseniormanagementandtheBoardofDirectors that supports the pro quick management of operational risk Controls/MitigationofOperationalRisk. Withregardto operational risk, several methods may be adopt for mitigatingtherisk. Forexample,lossesthat efficacyarise on account of natural disasters can be insured against.Losses that might arise from business disruptions overdue to telecommunication or electrical failures can be mitigated by establishing redundant backup facilities. Loss due to internal factors, like employee fraud or product flaws, which may be difficult to identify and insure against, can be mitigated with strong internal auditing procedures. The Board of Directors and senior management must aim efforts for establishing a strong internal control culture in which control activities are an integral part of the regular activities of a bank.Banks should periodically review their risk limitation and control strategies and should adjust their operational risk profile accordingly using appropriate strategies, in light of their overall risk appetite and profile. Investment in appropriate processing technology and information technology security are also important for risk mitigation. Banks should also have in place contingency and business continuity plans to keep in line their ability to operate on an ongoing basis and limit losses in the event of severe business disruption.OPERATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT APPROACHES IN BASEL II The Basel framework (2004) proposes a range of approaches for setting aside regulatory cap ital for operational risk under Pillar 1 The basic Indicator Approach (BIA), The Standardised Approach(TSA)andtheAdvancedMeasurementApproach (AMA). Allthethreeapproachesdifferintheircomplexityand the banks are encouraged to move on the spectrum of approaches as they obtain more sophistication in their risk management practices.The Basic Indicator Approach is the simplest approach for estimating regulatory capital, wherein Volume 3 Issue 1 January 2013 ISSN 2249-555X banks are required to set apart an amount equal to the average over the previous three years of 15% of positive annual gross income. In The Standardised Approach, banks activities are divided up into eight business lines Corporate finance, Trading & Sales, Retail Banking, Commercial Banking, compensation & Settlement, Agency Services, Asset Management and Retail Brokerage.While gross income continues to be the master(prenominal) indicator of operational risk as under the Basic Indicator Approach, the specific amount to be set apart as a percentage of the gross income varies between business lines, ranging from 12 to 18% , as compared to the 15% overall under the Basic Indicator Approach. This approach is more refined than the Basic Indicator Approach as it takes into the account the fact that some business lines are riskier than others and therefore a higher similitude of capital has to be set apart for those business lines.The Advanced MeasurementApproach(AMA)isbasedonthebanksinternalmodels to quantify operational risk. The framework gives flexibility to the banks in the characteristics of the choice of internal models, though it requires banks to demonstrate that the operational risk measures meet a soundness standard comparable to a one-year holding period and a 99. 9% confidence level, which means that a banks capital charge should be equal to at least 99. 9% quantile of their annual heart loss distribution.Banks are required to factor in four key elementsindesigningtheirAdvancedMe asurementApproach framework internal loss data, external loss data, scenario analysis and bank specific business environmental and internal control factors. The methodologies under the mod approach are evolving and there are a range of methods in practice in banks internationally. OPERATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE stage setting OF INDIAN BANKING SECTOR The Reserve Bank of India is the regulator and supervisor of the banking system in India and is entrusted with the task of framing the capital adequacy guidelines for banks in India under Basel II.Public sector banks, where the Government of India is the major shareholder, dominate the Indian banking system, accounting for well three-fourths of total assets and income. These banks are large and very old banks, operate through thousands of branches spread all over the country. The new private sector banks are fully automated from day-one and operate like other high tech foreign banks. The private sector banks have grown rapidly si nce the onslaught of reforms and have increased their share in total assets of the banking industry, whereas the public sector banks have witnessed shrinkage in their market share.The public sector banks have only recently started automating their processes and operations. This transition has posed significant challenges in the management of operational risk to the banks as introduction of new technology and complete overhauling of the existing systems requires a re-engineering of business processes, training of manpower, audit in a computerized environment and other related operational risk challenges. The new generation private sector banks on the other hand have to track with the risks arising from growth at a scorchingpace.WiththereformsintheIndianbankingsectorand banks being allowed to access new markets and sophisticated products, the Reserve Bank of India has also been repeatedly advising the banks to have in place an effective and resilient control framework in place to ma nage operational risks. Specific guidance on management of operational risk has also been issued as per which some banks especially the larger and internationally active banks are expected to move along the range towards more sophisticated pproaches as they develop more sophisticated operational risk management systems and practices which meet the prescribed qualifying criteria. Conclusion ManagingOperationalRiskisemergingasanimportantelement of sound risk management practice in modern day banks in the wake of phenomenal increase in volume of transactions, high degree of structural changes and complex technological support systems. RBI expects all Indian banks to strengthen their operation risk management system and to INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED research X 7 ReseaRch PaPeR e in avidness to graduate to more sophisticated approaches of operational risk management under Basel norms. In order to derive maximum gains banks need to gear up efforts for speedy and effective implementation of comprehensive Volume 3 Issue 1 January 2013 ISSN 2249-555X operational risk management frameworks and thereby bring more efficiency, transparency, profitability and sustainability into their operations. REFERENCE Reserve Bank of India, Department of Banking Operations and Development, commutation Office, Mumbai, (2005), Draft guidance note on management of operational risk, 2.Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (August, 2003) The Joint Forum Operational risk transfer across financial sectors, 3. Usha, Janaki, Raman, (2008) Operational Risk Management in Indian Banks in the Context of Basel II A Survey of the State of Preparedness and Challenges in Developing the Framework, 4. Rao, D, Tripati and Ghosh, Prodipta, (2008) Preparedness of Indian Banks in Managing Operational Risk, 5. Kale, Ketan and Agarwal, Mohit, Marsh India, (2011) Operational Risk Mitigation & Basel II Accord Challenges & Opportunities. 8 X INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH

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