Friday, February 22, 2019

Pollution Effects and Counter Measures Essay

The impact of valet body process on our surroundings bear non be denied. Many aspects of todays environmental problems argon only now coming to light as scientists explore the manages and effects of human impact on the world slightly us. Todays generation has seen both unwarranted skepticism and parody on both sides of the debate on how close we ar to an environmental catastrophe. Although, as Frederick Buell wrote, as of today our world has not ended eco-apocalypse hasnt happened. Yet people today in any case accept the fact that they unrecorded in the shadow of environmental problems so s ever soe that they prove a crisis (xii). sequence it is easier to understand the problems we face today by classifying human activity and its consequences into neatly defined, cause-and-effect relationships, it is important to realize that altogether of these causes and effects interact in a complex web to bring ab pop an environmental crisis. That said, contamination is unrivalled of the close widespread results of human activity, encompassing a kind range of substances with pervasive effects.The effect of pollutants on our environment is one of the virtuall(a)y widely publicized factors contri just nowing to its degradation. And deservedly so pollutants atomic number 18 diverse, and taint takes umteen establishs, simply the effect of unchecked contaminant is rapid, extensive, and oftentimes striking in its visual manifestations. Finally, in numerous cases befoulment defies geographical and organisational boundaries, making it an world-wide concern, and overcomeling it will require the involvement of citizens and organizations from all levels of ordering.defilement involves the introduction of pollutants into the environment, and it is normally nonionised into major categories expression, dent, and piddle base on which component of the environment is fal let. Other forms of pollution are classify based on the nature of the pollut ant, and these include radiation pollution, biological pollution, and hitch pollution. Scientists piss developed many ways of gauging the level of pollution, or of a specific pollutant within the environment, but when one considers the lead impact of pollution on human wellness, it is picture that matters to a greater extent than the concentration of pollutants.In the environmental pathway, exposure to a certain concentration of a pollutant is what determines the actual window glass of the pollutant in the ex make up individual, and this is what leads to practical health consequences (Akbar et al., 62). In many cases, pollution is an occupational hazard, posing the greatest danger to people who suffer the most exposure as while of their daily lives.With well-nigh pollutants, however, the effects are indirect, not affecting an individuals health, but impacting a societys re basisages and economy in subtle ways. Even with the increased environmental awareness in modern societ y, it is surprising how many people take over see nothing wrong simply because they are not nowadays affected by pollution. The purpose of this look into is to give an overview of the different classes of pollution, how they affect society on different levels, and several(prenominal) of the measures that fuck divine service to pr nonethelesst or reduce its spread.When one thinks of air pollution, perhaps the first insure that comes to mind is that of a smog-filled skyline of a major city, through which a hazy sun barely shines. However, exposure to the outdoor smog in a colly city is not the main source of pollutant dosage. intimately of the actual human exposure to air pollution occurs indoors, simply because that is where most people spend most of their time (Akbar et al., 61). Just as the health risks of polluted piss can be minimized by treatment, the risks posed by polluted air (namely, cardiovascular and respiratory disease) can be less(prenominal)ened by using prop er filters within homes and offices. plot of ground it is possible to keep the indoor air step under control, improving atmospherical air quality will require a collective parkway on a a great deal large scale leaf. Major sources of worldwide pollutant emissions are industrial operations, power plants, road vehicles, forest fires, and the incineration of refuse. Vehicular emissions are not only limited to exhaust, but also include emissions from the wear of tires and brakes and the road surface itself, which makes it difficult to come up with an accurate view of total vehicular emissions.Many of these sources of emissions are similarly difficult to quantify, but the boilersuit statistics show that air pollution trends are higher in ontogeny countries, and above the national average in megacities (Akbar et al., 36). This reflects a normal trend of better environmental awareness, and environment protection programs that cast been implement for a desireer time in well-develo ped, industrialized countries. For some pollutants, much(prenominal) as sulfur dioxide a product of the combustion of fossil fuels the world(a) trend shows a decrease, but for new(prenominal) emissions there is no much(prenominal)(prenominal) evidence (Akbar et al., 49).Clearly, although industrialized countries equivalent America soak up been consciously simplification some emissions for a eight-day time than other countries in the developing world, there is much that still needs to be done on an international level. Former United States Vice President Al panel sums up the nature of the problem regarding the public attitudeOur continued dependance of imported anointis connected to the same pattern that leads us to perpetrate 70 million tons of global warming pollution into the flat coats atmosphere every(prenominal) 24 hours around the world, as if it was an string out sewer. And pretending that that doesnt wealthy person consequence, when theres signs to tell us it definitely doesthats really the essence of this problem. But because its so pervasive, in order to change it, we really arrive at to commence a sea change in public opinion in this hoidenish and around the world before the politicians and the government leaders in every nation will go for the courage to do what really is necessary. ( reference with Al Gore, 2007)The second major grade of pollution is footing pollution. The composition of daub is an important factor in an ecosystem, affecting what types of vegetation are competent to take root and survive, and by extension, what species of animals will thrive in the area. grunge also retains water, and pollution of the soil often spreads to dry land water tables. When soil is contaminated by pollutants usually in the form of heavy metals that break off the balance and composition of the soil it is often harder to detect, and difficult to determine the expiration of the pollution. Such contamination typically results from direct deposition of pollutants into the soil.Landfills and waste haemorrhoid contain pollutants which gradually leach into the soil, and some of the particles in polluted air fall to the ground, where water flood and seepage can spread the pollutants and baffle them into the soil. Operations in the mining industry, when im decently managed, can cause long-run damage to the soil, and to the environment as a whole. Jared Diamond cites Montana as a case study of the damage that the mining industry can do to the environment, saying it has about 20,000 attached mines, some of them recent but many of them a century or more(prenominal) old, that will be leaking acid andtoxic metals essentially forever (36). In most cases, these mines perplex got no surviving owners, or the owners are financially unable to intrinsicise their property and manage its wastes.The relationship in the midst of the soil and the rest of the environment is complex, and much remains to be understood b efore a ensample set of indicators and benchmarks can be apply to monitor the quality of all soils. While these subtle relationships and interactions are being actively studied by scientists, land management can be improved and better practiced to lessen the impact of activities such as land and mining, by regularization waste disposal and promoting sustainable country rehearses. As an example, many farmers practice plowing their fields close to the edge of rivers or streams, and letting their bloodline graze at the edge.This practice actually contributes to the erosion of riverbanks and diffusion of agricultural wastes into water. Careful management of land and soil resources can prevent soil erosion, which in turn will lessen the deposition of silt in freshwater areas that may be important habitats or raising sites for species like salmon. ( environs Agency). Public pressure is necessary for the government to pass laws that will enforce mining companies to take charge of cleaning up their mines the main business lies with the American public, to be more active and vocal in defend the environment (Diamond, 38).Waters properties as a solvent are familiar to everyone, thus it should not be surprising that water is specially vulnerable to contamination. The flow of bodies of water, as well as water runoff from precipitation, can disperse a high majority of pollutants over the occupation of a course of study. Waters cycle in the environment has unique implications for the spread of pollution, and the various pollutants and contaminants of water comprise the third major category of pollution. Bodies of water can be polluted by point sources, such as sewage treatment plants, or they may be polluted through diffusion.Diffuse pollution can come from misconnected drains in households, withdraw of surface wastes into groundwater, or runoff of toxic substances that have been deposited on land. upcountry precipitation (in the form of rain) creates wate r runoff, which drains into larger bodies of water, carrying with it some deposited pollutants from the atmosphere and many untreated wastes that have been improperly disposed of.Oil from roadways and motor vehicles, dissipation agricultural fertilizer, and assorted litter from the land, can be washed into rivers and out to sea, where the scale of dispersal makes it very difficult to treat the pollution. In fact, the volume of pollution deposited by water from runoff can exceed that of an oil spill. In Puget Sound in the Pacific Northwest, for example, each year from 2000 to 2006 just about 22,580 metric tons of oil and petroleum products are deposited by runoff, compared to less than 1,000 metric tons from direct oil spills (Dodge).The debasement of water quality leads to obvious consequences for human consumption. Freshwater with unwarranted levels of certain pollutants becomes unsafe to drink, and brine can lose its ability to sustain biodiversity, negatively impacting the leaning industry. boorish runoff contains nitrates and phosphates, which are important nutrients for many organisms, but in excessive concentrations in bodies of water they lead to explosions in the population of certain microorganisms (a phenomenon sometimes known as algal blooms). This leads to an overall decrease in change state oxygen content in the water, which harms other species, mainly fish, by disrupting spawning and breeding patterns, and can lead to massive deaths in certain species when oxygen levels are depleted (Environment Agency).Thermal pollution of water can occur when a large volume of water is utilise for cooling purposes in processes that run down large amounts of heat. Electrical stations use water for this purpose, and subsequently wall socket it into the environment. This water is considerably warmer than the rest of the water in the environment, and brings a corresponding rise in temperature to the entire body of water where it is released. This over a gain reduces the capacity of water to hold dissolved oxygen, with the same effects expound above (Lourenco and Neves).With most point sources of water pollution under regulation, the biggest source of water pollution is diffusion. If the source of pollution cannot be pinpointed, the processes that create or contribute to diffuse pollution have to be more strictly managed. Since 2003, European legislation has created a Water Framework Directive (WFD) to actively assess the standards of water usage with chemical, biological, and physical tests. The WFD monitors all bodies of water (including ground water reserves and artificial reservoirs) with the ultimate goal of reducing water pollution in the United Kingdom and all EU part states by 2015. The United Kingdoms Environment Agency summarizes some of its recommendationsKey policy issues, such as the control of diffuse water pollution, land-use planning, the designation of heavily modified water bodies and the role of wetlands must b e addressed by applicable authorities. Particular emphasis should be set(p) on the diverse sources of diffuse pollutionThese include discharges from agriculture and also from other land-uses such as urban developments, transport infrastructure and abandoned mineral workings. Those who manage the land may have to do things in a different way to ensure that they do not cause water pollution. (1)Some forms of pollution are not classified by the sphere of the environment that they contaminate, but by their nature and properties. Our planet is invariably bathed in radiation originating from outer space, and there are trace amounts of radiotherapy scattered throughout the earths crust. These do not constitute hot pollution typically, this form of pollution originates from nuclear power processing, or from equipment used in nuclear medicine and radiography, although nuclear fallout from bombs and disasters, such as the 1986 Chernobyl incident, is perhaps the most striking example of nu clear pollution.In the case of Chernobyl, flawed design of the nuclear reactor, combined with personnel errors, led to an explosion which released around 5% of the reactors core of radioactive material into the atmosphere. The wind carried fallout composed mainly of the radioisotopes iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium 137, from the reactor across the former Soviet Union. Among the most heavily affected countries were Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia.The radioactive pollutions immediate effect resulted in the death of 30 people, injury to over a hundred other individuals, and the immediate body waste and relocation of over 200,000 affected citizens. One of the most studied long term effects of the disaster is a significant increase in the number of cases of thyroid crabby person among generations of exposed individuals, due to the accumulation of radioactive iodine-131 in the thyroid gland (International Atomic Energy Agency).It should be remark that Chernobyl was a rare nuclear disa ster that is not representative of the more common forms of radiation pollution rather, it serves as an example of the potential scale and duration of pollutions ill effects. Much more commonly en countered are the radiation-related risks in the medical field, where exposure to X-rays and radiotherapy practices can lead to an increased risk of developing certain cancers among some groups of patients.However, for the most part, properly observed medical standards will ensure that the risk of developing cancer from medical radiation is low an estimated 0.05% per rem of radiation. The amount of exposure depends on the medical procedures involved, and although the increase in the risk of cancer induction is infinitesimal (from zero to one percent), there is no threshold of radiation exposure below which it is absolutely risk-free. Thus, all procedures involving radiation exposure should be distinguishable on the basis of risk versus benefit to the patient (Classic).Homo sapiens is th e only species that has succeeded in domesticating other species, and with the spread of human civilization, we have carried our pets (and pests) to tender lands. Introduced species constitute a form of biological pollution when a non-native species establishes itself in an ecosystem, displacing certain native species that play a vital role in that ecosystem, and possibly causing economic damage, they are considered encroaching(a). In ecology, the rule of tens states that one in every ten introduced species becomes invasive (Boudouresque and Verlaque, 1).The most significant direct consequence of biological usurpation is the extinction of native species that are not adapted to compete with invaders. Such is the case with the Nile perch (Lates niloticus), a normal commercial fish species that was introduced to Lake Victoria in East Africa around the year 1962. The Nile perch disrupted the lakes ecosystem by predatory activity, feeding on many native fish species, and spreading p arasites which it carries in its gills. An estimated 300 fish species native to Lake Victoria were driven to extinction by the 1980s (Blake).While the Nile perch and some other invasive species have at to the lowest degree had some marginal economic benefit (a boost to the commercial fishing industry and topical anesthetic anesthetic employment), in many cases the effect of biological invasion has been a complete economic disaster. Australias plague of introduced European runs (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has not only threatened native animals as the rabbits outcompete them for food and shelter the rabbits have threatened the ecosystem itself by decimating vegetation, causing the soil (arid and fragile over much of Australia) to erode.This in turn has greatly cut back the available land for sheep and kine grazing two of Australias major industries. Efforts to reduce rabbit populations have only increased the economic cost of the rabbit invasion, as Australians have tried to use po ison, traps, dynamite, and expensive biological control agents in the form of diseases such as myxomatosis and the calicivirus (Diamond, 392).Managing an invasion is very difficult once the invasive species has become naturalised. As noted by Oregon State University life scientist John Chapman, Unlike other contaminants in the world, introduced species dont have a half-life, they can spread from a single point source, and they have a potentially infinite life span (qtd. in Reiber). An introduced species becomes established when conditions in the new environment are favorable, and it has little to no competition, and natural predators are lacking.Too often, strategies devised to control populations of invasive species backfire the myxomatosis disease used to exterminate rabbits in Australia did succeed in bringing down the rabbit population by 90%, but the survivors then developed a resistance to the disease (Diamond, 392). Biological or chemical control agents used to eradicate in vasive species often are detrimental to native species as well. In most cases, the safest way to remove invasive species from the environment is manually, which can be highly labor intensive and needs to be organized at the local or community level.Increased sound levels in our surroundings can constitute a form of noise pollution. While some people would classify certain genres or styles of music as noise, the most common form of noise pollution comes from transportation and industrial activity. Extreme levels of noise pollution can lead to a deterioration and eventual impairment of the auditory function in humans and other organisms. reverberate pollution also affects individuals in other ways that may be less easy to measure or quantify increase levels of stress and annoyance, for example, or disruption of normal sleeping routines. States such as Maryland have implemented some form noise control in Maryland, the Noise Control Program was passed into legislation in 1970, to provid e technical assistance and enforcement regarding noise related issues across the state. It has been de-funded since July 2005, as the obligation of regulating noise-related issues has been passed down to local government.There are many other forms of pollution that do not fit neatly into this broad classification, and to in full understand the effect of every pollutant would often require time-consuming research into various case studies. The interaction between different types of pollution often contributes to a complex effect acting on a larger scale, such as global warming, which is a phenomenon created by the interaction between the increased levels of various gases (known collectively as greenhouse gases). Pollution affects us on a global scale, but it can be reduced or remediated by efforts at the local and personal level.The easiest way to work contributing to the effort to reduce pollution is to minimize ones own pollution of the environment. It is this diffuse type of po llution which is much more difficult to catch and trace. Individual citizens not disposing of their wastes properly, or households with misconnected drains, all have a small effect on pollution levels, and collectively this adds up to a large increase in pollution if unchecked or unreported. This is the pollution whose source is often unnoticed, and it is up to each individual to extirpate himself or herself as a source of this anonymous, unaccountable pollution.Many not-for-profit organizations and agencies concerned with the welfare of our environment are engaged in activities to counter pollution and its effects. Participating in local community clean-up events can help to not only reduce the level of pollution in a community, but also heightens the awareness of people regarding pollution issues, especially if the organizers have invited an environmental expert to deliver a talk about problems relevant to the community. Recycling gadgets instead of throwing them away is a soluti on that helps both the consumers and the manufacturing industries.Sony Electronics, Inc. has a recycling program that accepts old or non-working Sony branded products free of charge, and even products of other companies for a small fee (On a higher level, government environmental agencies monitor the major point sources of pollution such as wastes disposed by large factories and industrial companies. With pollutions far-reaching consequences, nations must help each other to remediate the worst polluted areas. An estimated 1 billion people are affected by pollution issues, and a majority of those people are in the developing world, where a popular lack of awareness and local regulation of pollution has reduced the overall life expectancy and quality of life (Hanrahan et al., 2).With minimal financial investment, a number of remediation measures can be carried out in some of the worst polluted areas in the developing world. These measures will help keep on lives, particularly of chi ldren, at an estimated cost of only one to fifty US dollars per person each year. However, implementing such measures often takes a back topographic point to the basic needs of education and primary health services that local governments often must prioritize (Hanrahan et al., 2-4). This is why it is important to have international intervention and cooperation, not apathy and the selfish attitude summed up by its someone elses problem, let them take care of it.In dealing with pollution it is important to keep in mind that many of the sources contributing to pollution are industries upon which modern society is dependent. exploit and agriculture are two examples of ancient activities that have helped men to develop their civilizations. Mining enabled us to build better shelters and construct the tools and implements that we use in nonchalant tasks.Agriculture and the potential to store surplus food has taken us from the lifestyle of hunter-gatherers and brought humans together in the first settlements, which eventually grew into cities and states. Pollution is a byproduct of these activities, and the effort to reduce or prevent pollution is not trying to destroy major industries or cease the output signal and development of new technology. It is an effort to make the producers and consumers responsible for the regulation of wastes created by these activities, and their proper management and disposal.We live in an age of awareness, and thanks to our modify and gradual realization of how we affect the world around us, todays environmental crisis has increasingly become a fact of life in the modern world. Modern governments should no longer be intent on debating the validity of environmental concerns, but focused on finding and implementing solutions. The root of these problems human degradation of the environment and exploitation of its resources has been at work ever since the dawn of the civilized age.The environmental crisis of the present, on both the global and local levels, is not a burden that we have borne for only a a couple of(prenominal) generations it is a result of centuries, even millennia, of human exploitation of available resources without the advocate of modern environmental science, accelerated by the industrialization brought about by developing technology, and abetted by attitudes and sensibilities that have developed in ignorance of how we impact our surroundings.The inaction of these outdated attitudes and accelerating industrial processes is huge and cannot be so easily stop it may take decades to realize the full extent of the damage we have done to the environment in every aspect, and perhaps longer to invert the trend. But for many of us, the fundamental error in thinking has, at least, been corrected. Environmental problems elsewhere in the world are no longer just someone elses concern. With modern globalization, what we do in our part of the world affects everyone else, and if we continue to act and think with that in mind, the environmental problems liner all of society will be managed by society as a whole.Works CitedA slow-moving oil spill. Ed. John Dodge. 01 declination 2007. The Olympian. 04 December 2007 Akbar, S. et al. World Health Organization. Air Quality Guidelines Global update 2005. Germany Druckpartner Moser, 2005.Boudouresque CF, Verlaque M. Biological pollution in the Mediterranean Sea invasive versus introduced macrophytes. leatherneck Pollution Bulletin, 2002 January 44(1)32-8.Buell, Frederick. From Apocalypse to Way of Life Four Decades of Environmental Crisis in the U.S. New York Routledge, 2003.Diamond, Jared. Collapse. New York Penguin Books, 2005.Environment Agency, 2003. The Water Framework Directive not only a question of quality. Bristol Environment Agency.Environment Agency, 2004. Soil, the hidden resource. Bristol Environment Agency.Environment Agency, 2007. The unseen threat to water quality. Bristol Environment Agency.Hanrahan, D. et al. Blacks mith Institute. Cost potentiality and Health Impact of Remediation of Highly Polluted Sites in the ontogenesis World. 2007.International Atomic Energy Agency. Chernobyls Legacy Health, Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Austria IAEA, 2006.Interview of Al Gore. Larry King Live. CNN. 05 July 2007.Invasion Biology Introduced Species unofficial Project. Ed. Jennifer Blake. 10 January 2005. Columbia University. 02 December 2007 http//, E. M. et al. Medical radiation exposure and embrace cancer risk findings from the Breast genus Cancer Family Registry. International Journal of Cancer 2007 July 121(2)386-94.Link Between Climate Change and Biological Pollution could scathe Northwest. Ed. Derek Reiber. 02 July 2001. Sightline Institute. 02 December 2007 Noise Pollution Control. 2007. Maryland Department of th e Environment. 05 December 2007 cart track Programs Multimedia Programs Noise Pollution Control.Pollution and its effect to the environment Interview with Ricky Clancy of Sony Electronics Blog. 27 September 2007. 05 December 2007. Risk/Benefit of Medical ray Exposures. Ed. Kelly Classic. 04 December 2007. Health Physics Society. 04 December 2007 Path HPS Publications Articles.Thermal Pollution. Ed. genus Silvia Lourenco and Rute Neves. 05 December 1996. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 04 December 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency. Noise A Health Problem. Washington, 1978

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