Wednesday, February 20, 2019

Hazards to food safety Essay

College of Hospitality Management regimen SAFETY & SANITATION HFOODSLesson 2 HAZARDS TO Food SafetyGeneral Symptoms of Foodborne affection Headache- Abdominal Pain Nausea- profligacy Vomiting- Fatigue Dehydration- FeverWhen a living, disease-causing micro- beingness is decimateen along with a diet, it smoke cause a nutritionborne transmittance. After ingestion, the organism burrows into the lining of the victims digestive tract and begins to get on in occur. This basis lead to the common symptoms of FBI exchangeable diarrhea. A common shell of solid nutritionborne transmission is salmonellosis. The disease is caused by Salmonella bacterium that argon frequently appoint in poultry and orchis.CLASSIFICATION OF FOODBORNE disorder1. contagionCaused by take diet that contains living disease causing micro-organism. Ex. bacterium, virus, leechs / dumbfounds inside the body and prevail FBI Salmonella bacterium that argon frequently found in poultry and eggs. 2. ti psinessCaused by eating foods that contains harmful chemic or toxin produced chemical exorbitance or toxin. If the food containing the toxin is eaten, the toxin causes an illness. Ex. Food Poisoning, common examples of food in deadlyantation atomic number 18 Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus aureus. Intoxication may also guide when an e person consumes food that contains man-made chemicals such as cleanup agents or pesticides. 3. Toxin-mediated transmittingCaused by eating food that contains harmful microorganisms that get out produce a toxin once inside the gentle body. (as in the grapheme of an transmittance) Atoxin-mediated infection is different from intoxication because the toxin is produced inside the body. An example of an organism that causes this theatrical role of illness is Clostridium Perfingens. On set timeIs the number of hours amongst the time a person eats foul food and when they first show symptoms of the disease. Individual flacks vary depe nding on factors such as age, health status, body weight and the derive of contaminant ingested with the food.FOODBORNE HAZARDSRefers to a bio enterical, chemical or physical hazard that can cause illness or injury when consumed along with the food.Biological HazardsInclude bacterium, viruses, parasites and fungi. These organisms argon very subaltern and can iodine be seen with the aid of a microscope. bacterium be single-celled microorganisms that require food, moisture and warmth to multiply. Chemical Hazards ar toxic substances that may occur naturally or may be added during the touch of food. Ex. Include agricultural chemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics), cleaning compounds, heavy metals (lead mercury), food additives, and food allergens.Chemicals and other(a) non-food items should never be placed near food items. Physical HazardsAre hard or soft foreign objects in food that can cause illness and injury. They include items such as fragments of glass, metal, unfrilled toothpicks, jewelry, adhesive bandages and human hair. These hazards result from accidental contamination and poor handling practices at umteen points.BACTERIAAre one of the most important biological foodborne hazards for whatever food establishment. Bacteria ar reported in more cases of FBI than whatsoever hazards. All bacteria exist in a vegetative state. vegetive cells grow, reproduce,and produce waste just like other living organism. around bacteria confuse the ability to change spore. Spores help bacteria stretch out when their environment is too hot, cold, alter out, acidic or when t here is non complete food. Spores are not able to grow or reproduce. CLASSIFICATIONS OF BACTERIAspoil BacteriaDe set (break down) foods so that they look, taste and smell bad. They reduce the quality of food to unacceptable levels. Pathogenic BacteriaAre disease-causing microorganisms that can nonplus people ill if they or their toxins are consumed with food.bacterial Gro wth the facsimile of bacteria and an increase in the number of organisms. Binary Fusion a process which bacteria reproduce when one bacterial cell divides to form new cells.SIX CONDITIONS BACTERIA NEED TO MULTIPLY (F-A-T-T-O-M)1. Food higher(prenominal)er(prenominal) in protein and Carbohydrates2. Acid Mildly acid environment of pH of 4.6 7.03. Temperature betwixt 41oF (5oC) and 135 oF (57oc)4. measure four hours5. Oxygen depending on the type of bacteria (with Oxygen or without 0 or both) 6. moisture Water body process greater than 0.85FOUR PHASES OF BACTERIAL GROWTH ( imprison Log Stationary Decline)1. Lag anatomy in which the bacteria exhibit little or no growth. The bacteria adjust to their surroundings during this phase. The lag phase last only a few hours at room temperature. 2. Log Phase bacteria growth is very rapid during this phase with bacteria doubling in numbers every few minutes. Keeping bacteria from reaching the log phase of growth is critical f or food safety 3. Stationary Phase the number of new bacteria being produced equals the number of organisms that are death off during this phase.The bacteria have made up much of the space, nutrients and moisture in the food by this phase. 4. Decline Phase in here bacteria die off rapidly because they overleap nutrients and are poisoned by their own toxic waste.SIX CONDITIONS BACTERIA1. Source of FOOD some bacteria prefer foods that are high in protein or carbohydrates like meats, poultry, seafoods, dairy products and desexed rice, beans and potatoes.(Microbes eat the same food we do)2. ACIDITY the pH symbolization is used to designate the body process of alkalinity of food. You measure pH on a scale that track downs from 0 to 14. Most foods are acidic and have a pH less than 7.0. Very acid foods (pH below 4.6), like lemons, limes and tomatoes, impart not normally support the growth of disease-causing bacteria. Pickling fruits and vegetables uphold the food by adding acid s such as vinegar. This lowers the pH of the food in order to behind down the rate of bacterial growth. A pH above 7.0 indicates the food is alkaline.Examples of alkaline foods are olives, egg whites, or soda crackers. Most bacteria prefer a neutral environment (pH of 7.0) but are candid of growing in foods that have a pH in the deviseing stove of 4.6 to 9.0. Since most foods have pH of less than 7.0, we have identified the range where harmful bacteria grow from 4.6 to 7.0. Many foods offered for sale in food establishment have a pH in this range.3. TEMPERATURE commonly metrical in degree Fahrenheit denoted as oF), degrees Celsius (denoted as oC), or both. Psychrophilic Bacteria grow with a temperature range of 32 oF (0oC) to 70 oF (21oC). They can brave at keep and room temperature. Mesophilic Bacteria (Middle Range) grow at temperatures between 70oC (21oC) & 110oF (43oC) with most rapidgrowth at human body temperature (98.6 OF, 37oC). Thermophilic Bacteria grow best at temperatures above 110oF (43oC). All Thermophilic bacteria are spoilage organismTemperature Danger ZoneMost disease causing bacteria can grow within a temperature range 41oF (5oC)to 139oF (60oC). Time and Temperature are the most critical factors affecting the growth of bacteria in foods. Keep it hot, hold the line it cold or dont keep it (Hot 135oF Cold 41oF)Temperature Abuse is the term applied to foods that have not been change to safe temperature or kept at the proper temperature. This could result in a foodborne illness.4. Time down the stairs ideal conditions, bacterial cells can prongy in number every 15 to 30 minutes. Clostridium Perfringens bacteria can double every 10 minutes. For most bacteria, a single cell can generate over one million cells in just five hours. Proper storage and handling of foods helps to foil bacteria from multiplying. Bacteria need about four (4) hours to grow to high bounteous numbers to cause illness. In danger Zone5. Oxygen also differ i n their requirements for atomic number 8.Aerobic Bacteria must have group O in order to growAnaerobic Bacteria cannot stand when group O is present because it is toxic to them. Usually grow well in nihility packaged foods or tinned goods) Facultative Anaerobic can grow with or without free oxygen but have a preference. -Controlling oxygen conditions may not be an effective way to prevent foodborne illness.6. Moisture is an important factor in bacterial growth. Drying is the oldest and the best method to preserve food. Many foods are preserved by lowering their pissing activity to 0.85 below. Drying foods or adding salt and sugar reduces the amount of water. (frozen foods)Water Activity (Aw)Is a measure of the amount of water that is not bound to the food and is, and so available for bacterial growth. Aw such as dairy products, poultry & eggs, meats, pasta, harried rice etc. Below 0.85 Aw such as Dry noodles, dry rice, flour jam & jellies etc.POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOODS (PHF)Some types of foods have the ability to support the rapid and progressive growth of infectious and toxin-producing microorganism Usually high in protein or carbohydrates / have a pH above 4.6 / have a water activity above 8.5. common examples of PHFRed meatsPoultry crank Shell EggsFish & molluscDairy ProductsOthers Vegetables, makeed rice or potatoes, refried beans & fruits such as cut cantaloupe. must not be held at Temperature Danger Zone within 41oF (5oC) to 135oF (57oC) for 4 hours or more.Ready to Eat Foods foods are items that are edible without washing, cooking, or additional preparation by the consumer or by the food establishment. These foods can become soil if not handles properly. Examples of ready to eat foods that can be eaten immediately Delicatessen items such as cheeses and luncheon meatsFruits and vegetablesSalad itemsHotdogsHard-boiled eggsFoodborne Illness Caused by BacteriaClassified as Sporeforeming enable a cell to survive environmental stress such as cooking, freezing, drying & high salt. Non-Sporeforeming easily destroyed by proper cookingSpores are not harmful if ingested, except in a babys digestive system. If a spore turns into a vegetative cell, the vegetative cell can grow in the food and cause illness if eaten.Sporeforeming bacteria found in foods grown in soil like Vegetables / Spices / Animal Products.BRIEF visibleness OF leafy vegetable PATHOGENIC BACTERIACAUSATIVE AGENTTYPE OF nauseaSYMPTOMS ONSETCOMMON FOODS ginmillBACILLUS CEREUS-Sporeforming bacterium that can survive with or without oxygen. bacterial intoxication or toxin mediated infectionDiarrhea type abdominal muscle cramps (8-16 hrs)Vomiting typevomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps(30 min.-6hrs.) Diarrhea type meats, milk, vegetableVomiting typerice, starchy foods, grains, cereals decently heat, cool, and heat foods clostridium PERFRINGENS-is a nearly anaerobic.(must have very little oxygen) Bacterial toxin-mediated infectionIntense sbdominal pains an d severe diarrhea, (8-22 hrs.)Spices, gravy, improperly cooled foods(especially mets and gravy dishes) Properly cook, cool, and reheat foodsCLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM-Is an anaerobic(must not have oxygen) Produces NEUROTOXIN-Which is one of the most deadliest biological toxins cognise to man. Bacterial intoxicationDizziness, double vision, difficulty in breathing and swallowing, irritation (12-36 hrs.) Improperly canned foods, vacuum packed preserve foodscooked foods in anaerobic mass. Properly heatprocess anaerobically packed foods Do not use home canned foods. CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI- is a major cause of foodborne infection.It requires a very strict amount of air for growth.As microaerophile,it can tolerate 3-6% oxygen for growth Bacterial infection faded, bloody diarrhea (2-5 days)Raw chicken, new milk, raw meatProperly handle and cook foods avoid cross contaminationSHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI- Anaerobic bacteria found in the intestines of warm blooded animals, especially cows. Bacterial infection or toxin mediated infection.Bloody diarrhea followed by kidney failure and hemolytic uremic syndrome(HUS) in severe cases,(12-72 hrs.) Undercooked hamburger, raw milk, unpasteurized apple cider, lettuce course session good food sanitation, handwashing properly handle and cook food LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES- is a facultative anaerobic(can grow with or without oxygen) This microbe has the ability to survive under many conditions such as high-salt foods and can grow at refrigerate temperatures (below 41F5C) Bacterial InfectionHealthy adult flu like symptomsAt risk population septicaemia, meningitis, encephalitis, birth defects (1day-3 hebdomads)Raw milk, dairy items, raw meats, refrigerated ready-to-eat foods, touch on read-to-eat meats such as hot dogs, raw vegetables and seafood Properly stack away and cook foods avoid cross contamination rotate processed refrigerated foods using FIFO to ensure timely use. SALMONELLA SPP.- Facultative anaerobic, found in the intestinal tract of humans and warm blooded animals. Bacterial infectionNausea, fever, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea (6-48 hrs.) Raw meats, raw poultry, eggs, milk, dairy productsProperly cook foods avoid cross contaminationSHIGELLA SPP.- Facultative anaerobic, found in the intestines and throne of humans and warm blooded animals,The bacterium produces a toxin that reverses the absorption of water bach into the body. Bacterial InfectionBacillary dysentery, diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, dehydration, (1-7 days) Foods that are wide-awake with human have-to doe with salads, raw vegetables, milk, dairy products, raw poultry, non-potable water, ready to eat meat scrubhands and practice good private hygiene properly cook foods STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS- Facultative anaerobic bacteria that produces a heat stable toxin as it grows on foods. Grow well when alone. Bacterial intoxicationNausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, headaches (2-6hrs.)Foods that are prepared with human cont act, cooked or processed foods Wash hands and practice good private hygiene. Cooking exit NOT inactivate the toxin. VIBRIO SPP.- Vibrio cholera, parahaemolyticus, vulnificus all these three are very resistant to salt and are common in seafood Bacterial infectionHeadache, fever, chills, diarrhea,vomiting, severe electrolyte loss, gastroenteritis, (2-48 hrs) Raw or improperly cooked angle and shellfishPractice good sanitation properly cook foods avoid serving raw seafood FOODBORNE distemper CAUSED BY VIRUSESCAUSATIVE AGENTTYPE OF illnessSYMPTOMS ONSETCOMMON FOODSPREVENTIONHEPATITIS A- Foodborne virus that has been associated with many foodborne infections. It causes a coloured disease called infectious hepatitis Viral infectionFever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, blow of the liver, gall (10-50 days) Foods that are prepared with human contact contaminated water Wash hands and practice good personal hygiene avoid raw seafood NORWALK VIRUS- another common foodborne virus that has been associated with many foodborne infections. Viral InfectionVomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, low grade fever onset 24-48 hrs. Sewage contaminated water, contaminated salad ingredient, raw clams, oysters and septic food workers Use potable water cook all shellfish handle food properly, understand time, temperature guidelines for PHF ROTAVIRUS- Is a conduct cause of severe diarrhea among infants and children Viral infectionDiarrhea, vomiting, low grade fever1-3 days onset lasts 4-8 days Sewage contaminated water, contaminated salad ingredients, raw seafood Good personal hygiene and handwashing Propr food handling practicesFOODBORNE ILLNESS CAUSED BY PARASITESCAUSATIVE AGENTTYPE OF ILLNESSSYMPTOMS ONSETCOMMON FOODSPREVENTIONANISAKIS SPP.- are nematodes( tineas) associated with foodborne infection from fish. The curves are about1-1/2 inches long and a diameter of a human hair. Thay are beige, ivory, white, gray,brown,or pink. Other names for this paras ite are cod worm and herring worm Parasite InfectionCoughing, vomiting onset 1hour-2weeksRaw or undercooked seafood especially bottom nourishment fishCook fish to the proper temperature throughout freeze to meet FDA Food code specifications CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS- is a parasite that has been reported much more frequently beginning in the 1990s leechlike InfectionWatery and explosive diarrhea, loss of appetite, bloating (1 week) Water, strawberries, raspberries and raw vegetablesGood sanitation, time-honoured supplierCRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM- adept cell microorganisms called protozoa. Found in water that has been contaminated with cow feces. Parasitic infectionSevere watery diarrhea within 1 week of ingestionContaminated water, food contaminated by infected food workers. Use potable water supply practice good personal hygiene and handwashing GIARDIA LAMBLIA- Found in the feces of wild animals, domestic pets and infected persons Parasitic infectionDiarrhea within 1 week of contactC ontaminated waterPOTABLE WATER SUPPLY good personal hygiene and handwashingTOXOPLASMA GANDII- Common in warm blooded animals including cats, rats, mice, pigs, cows, sheep, chickens, and birds Parasitic infectionMild cases of the disease involve swollen lymph glands, fever, headache, and muscle aches. Severe cases may result in damage to the eye or brain (10-13days) Raw meats, raw vegetables and fruitGood sanitation, reputable supplier and proper cooking.TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS- roundworm that causes parasitic infection Parasitic infection from a nematode wormNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, muscle soreness (2-28 days) Primarily undercooked pork products and wild game meats( bear, walrus) Cook foods to the proper temperature throughoutFOODBORNE ILLNESS CAUSED BY CHEMICALSChemical hazards are usually classified as either naturally occurring or man-made chemicals. of course OCCURING CHEMICALS- include toxins that are produced by a biological organism. AllergensCiguatoxinMycotoxinSco mbrotoxinShellfish Toxin naturally OCCURING CHEMICALSCAUSATIVE AGENTTYPE OF ILLNESSSYPMTOMS ONSETCOMMON FOODSPREVENTIONFOOD ALLERGENS- causes a persons immune system to respond An allergic reaction usually involving the skin, mouth, digestive tract, or airways Skin- hives, rashes, and itchingMouth- swelling and itching of the lips and tongueDigestive tract- vomiting and diarrheaAirways- difficulty breathing, respireFoods that contain milk, eggs, wheat, nuts, and peanuts, fish and shellfish Packaged and prepared foods must be properly labelled if they contain common food allergens so that nice people can avoid it CIGUATOXIN- The toxin is found in tiny, free move sea creatures called algae which live among certain coral reefs Fish toxin originating from toxic algae of tropical watersVertigo, hot/ cold flashes, diarrhea, vomiting (15min- 24 hrs.) Marine finfish including grouper, barracuda, snapper, jack, mackerel, triggerfish, reef fish grease ones palms fish from a reputable sup plier cooking WILL NOT inactivate the toxin SCOMBROTOXIN- also called histamine poisoning, is caused by eating foods high in a chemical compound called histamine Seafood toxin originating from histamine producing bacteriaDizziness, burning feeling in the mouth, facial rash or hives, tasty taste in mouth, headache, itching, teary eyes, runny nose(1-30min) Tuna, mahi-mahi, bluefish, sardines, mackerel, anchovies, amberjack, abalone Purchase fish from a reputable supplier, store fish at low temperatures to prevent growth of histamine-producing bacteria toxin is not inactivated by cooking SHELLFISH ROXINSPSP, DSP, DAP, NSP- The toxins are produced by certain algae called dinoflagellates IntoxicationNumbness of lips, tongue, arms, legs, neck lack of muscle coordination (10-60 min) Contaminated mussels, clams, oysters, scallopsPurchase from a reputable supplierMYCOTOXINS- Mycotic organisms or fungi are molds, yeasts, and mushrooms, some of which are capable of causing foodborne illness.F ungi are larger than bacteria. And they prefer foods that are high in sugar or starches Intoxication1.Acute onset hemorrhage, fluid build up2. Chronic onset cancer from small doses overtimeMoldy grains, corn, corn products, peanuts, pecans, walnuts, and milk Purchase food from a reputable supplier keep grains and nuts dry and protect products from humidity ADDED MAN-MADE CHEMICALSMAN-MADE CHEMICALS- include substances that are added, by choice or accidentally, to a food during processing. Cleaning solutions and sanitary suppliesFood additivesPesticides- pull up stakes residues on fruits and vegetables and can usually be removed by a vigorous washing procedure. Chemicals from containers or food-contact surfaces of inferior metal that are utilize may lead to heavy-metal or inferior metal poisoning (cadmium, copper, lead, galvanized metals, etc.)FOODBORNE ILLNESS CAUSED BY PHYSICAL HAZARDSPHYSICAL HAZARDS- Are foreign objects in food that can cause illness and injury Fragments of gl assesMetal shavingsUnfrilled Toothpicks world hairAnd JewelleryBandagesStones, rocks or wood particlesStaple wires

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