Tuesday, January 8, 2019
Linguistics Classes, Verb and Noun
Discuss and contrast some of the master(prenominal) feature articles of the separatees VERB and NOUN in incline and whatever otherwise language. In this essay I pull up stakes make an attempt to discuss resistences betwixt two classes of lexemes, which be verb and noun. In launch to conduct that analysis in a detailed manner I volition refer to two languages, face and shine ( fry references to French go forth also attention my studies). I will start from specify what hotshot kindle refer to as class in linguals. I will to refer to certain shadows of doubt that may be casted on that categorization.This will be followed by elaborating subtleties of what constitutes a verb providing manakins and showing contrasts amidst two languages examined. With the help of studying materials Ill manage to line empirical criteria for how the idea of verb get up be understood by a linguist. Then, I will appliance similar methodology to clarify the belief of a noun class. Finally I will arrive at a culmination that beyond all doubt those two categories are distinctly distinct and minor similarities emphasized by two drastically disparate languages simply make the consequence more enkindle.A learner is able to single out every language into two diverse, just now mutually supplementing, categories. Grammar is a set of unkindly system that determines how items of the language interact with from each one other. Lexicon, on the other hand translates a glossary of lexemes. Lexeme is more than a enunciate, as it refers to all doable variations of linguistic items utilise within language. Its relation to the meaning green goddess some times proves difficult to define without implementing a diversity of damage in the definition. To fully explain what a given lexeme mutilateice it has to be placed in a variety of mounts and supported with examples.An alternative to lexicon is called a thesaurus and it groups haggling accordingly to their semantic similarities. Lexicon can be further change integrity into classes of lexemes. Un equal grammar, these systems of lexical concepts are open, which content their content varies depending on the language. Before move the line between nouns and verbs Id like to draw attention to possible blurs of that line. In English language manner of speaking much(prenominal) as walk relate to two a noun and a verb. This is not merely a homonym (lexeme that has the same mental strain besides varies in its meaning) as two expressions refer to the same activity.Interesting comparison with the nicety language is that it never utilizes verbs as noun only when still has large variety of verb derived nouns such as zapalenie (inflammation) or skojarzenie (association). Despite that point verb derived noun in beautify such as bieg (a run) is not its noun form of the verb bieganie (running). It also contains a significantly smaller number of homonyms, some of which either differ s in spelling (kot-kod) or has a foreign origin (pilot tv remote and pilot one that steers a plane) and is usually a noun. English uses manifold homonyms within disparate classes and semantic distances pitch, division.As no universal differentiation can be drawn for classes of verb and noun they are almost usually identified by several categories of lexemes. Verb in every language refers to motion, rest, giving, affect, corporeal, attention and speaking. several(prenominal) languages allow further distinction to atomic and non-nuclear verbs. Nuclear verb of rest in belt up would be lezec (means to bring down, applied to either an aim or a person) and the non-nuclear item that can be define only by a reference to the nuclear verb zalegac (to lay somewhere for a long time/to jut in the way of prevalent activities).English, on the other hand cannot provide a good example of such a lexical item. A scholar can also mark off verbs to be transitive verb or non-transitive. A transitive verb needs to be undefiled by an object of the action (We go forth John. ) while the intransitive is complete without any object to follow (We could not refuse it so we left. ). In fall transitive (przesuwac to move an object) are entirely different words than intransitive verbs (skakac to jump). Categories that will only refer to verbs class are musical mode and tense aspect.Both in glint and English future chivalric and present tenses occur, notwithstanding in glisten perfect tenses are only implied by the context Patrze na niego od godziny Ive been watching him for an hour. Whats also fascinating is that in past and future continuous tense Polish verbs suddenly allow gender. Discussing modality its worth mentioning that in Polish tyrannical mode of a verb is always a different form any fixity conjugation (which wouldnt be the drive in French). English modality is most likely to be contained within the context of the sentence.Comparing these languages from the perspective of verbs scholar should also bear in mind that while English has phrasal verbs (put it off) that are quite different from their lexeme of origin (put) Polish does not. Id risk a statement that this use is associated with a complex system of prefixes (wlaczyc, wylaczyc solve on, turn off). Following the applied logic one ought to explain the lexical class of noun with its typical references. Nouns describe parts of the sympathetic body and components of other things, fauna, flora, sun moon and stars, elements, and artefacts.They also stand for abstract terms such as emotions, colour or time. Latter one often leads to interesting observations when examined from a linguistic perspective. In Polish and French instead of asking for the time, one asks for the number of the hour. A noun could be derived from verbs or adjectives (swim, hatred) or underived (beauty, fish). Dixon stated that transitiveness value of verbs is equally important to the gender of the nou n. In English nouns dont have gender, while in Polish and French even objects have gender. statistical distri merelyion of gender qualities within these lexemes can be conditioned by the context of culture.Its also often implied by vowel sound suffix in French and Polish (e in French and a in Polish). Nouns can take singular form or plural form when added a suffix (s in English and i in Polish). There are exceptions both grammatical (fish) and mass-nouns (mud). Some languages include use of a possessive suffix, however uncomplete English nor Polish would be an example. form of nouns also includes generic terms, which mean a word that can mean a variety of things depending on the implied intention. An example that is close to perfection is the noun thing which can stand for any other noun.It can as well be a feature of speech style. Curious detail is, when translated, the word thing in Polish can take two forms (cos/rzecz), both have a similar meaning but are used in different cont ext and the latter one has a female gender. Less obvious example would be a Polish word wiersz, which can refer to a song as well as to a single text line. According to scholars like Marantz certain lexical items can be used in a variety of syntactic structure and implementation of any lexicon, therefore classes such as nouns or verbs are entirely futille.I beg to differ as the summary of my analysis shows sevenfold differences and distinctive features of each class. Verbs and nouns are defined with a variety of different concepts. both additional term that refers to categories within a class is like an additional dimension, which outline boundaries of semantic field necessary for sagaciousness the concept. Therefore, provides a valuable methodology for linguistic studies. Blake Lezenski Word Count 1235 Bibliography R. M. W. Dixon, 2012. Basic lingual supposition Volume 3 yet grammatic Topics. Edition 1. Oxford University Press, USA. Erkelens, M. A. , 2009. training to catego rize verbs and nouns studies on Dutch. Ultrecht Amsterdam focalise for Language and talk &8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212&8212 1 . Dixon R. M. W. Dixon, 2012. Basic Linguistic Theory Volume 3 Further Grammatical Topics. Edition 1. Oxford University Press, USA, p. 290. 2 . Ibid 291. 3 . Ibid 291. 4 . Ibid 300. 5 . Ibid 293. 6 . Ibid 300. 7 . Ibid 305. 8 . Ibid 291. 9 . Ibid 302. 10 . Ibid 301. 11 . Erkelens, M. A. , 2009. Learning to categorize verbs and nouns studies on Dutch. Ultrecht Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication, p. 26.